LSA (d-Lysergic Acid Amide)


1. Overview
2. Chemistry
3. History
4. Dosage
– 4.1 Ingestion
5. Effects
– 5.1 Physiological
6. Botany
– 6.1 Grow Guide
7. Legality


1. Overview

d-lysergic acid amide (LSA) is an alkaloid of the ergoline family and is found to be naturally occurring in a number of plants and fungi  (other names include ‘ergine’ and ‘d-lysergamide’). LSA is considered to be a weaker but naturally-occurring form of lysergic acid diethlyamide (LSD). The structural difference between LSA and LSD is that whereas LSD contains N(C2H5)2, LSA contains the ammonia molecule NH2. This minor difference means that LSD is 50 – 100 times more psychoactively potent than its naturally-occurring counterpart. LSA has been used shamanistically by many human civilizations throughout history. Today, lysergamides such as LSA are used in pharmaceuticals and as psychedelics.


2. Chemistry

Chemical formula: C16H17N3O
Molecular weight: 267.33
Melting Point: 242° C (from methanol) / 232° C methanesulfonate (from methanol/acetone)
LDLo (lowest pub. lethal dose): 2500 ug/kg i.v. (rabbit)

Table of alkaloid percentage in most popular LSA-containing seeds:

Seed variety % LSA Total alkaloids % by weight
Hawaiian Baby Woodrose: 0.04 0.30
Ololiuqui: 0.02 0.04
Heavenly Blue: 0.01 0.02
Pearly Gates: 0.02 0.03
Weddding Bells: 0.01 0.03

Breakdown of Major Alkaloid content in Hawaiian Baby Woodrose seeds:

Alkaloid % of total alkaloids % of dry seed weight
d-Lysergic acid amide (LSA): 22.68 0.136
d-Isolysergic acid amide (Isoergine): 31.36 0.188
Ergometrine:* 8.2 0.049
Lys. alpha-OH-ethylamide: 5.79 0.035
IsoLys.: 3.98 0.0024

*Ergometrine has uterus-stimulating properties, and has been demonstrated to have strong negative effects on growing fetuses, causing a multitude of mental and physical developmental complications. It should be avoided by pregnant women.

HBW seeds contain 0.3% ergot alkaloids and are thus the most potent of all vine drugs. The ergot alkaloids aroclavine, ergine, isoergine (isolysergic acid amide), chanoclavine-I and -II, racemic chanoclabine-II, elymoclavine, festuclavine, lysergene, lysergol, isolysergol, molliclavine, penniclavine, stetoclavine, isosetoclavine, ergometrinine, lysergic acid hydroxyethylamide, isolysergic acid-hydroxyethylamide, and ergonovine (ergometrine) have been demonstrated to be present.

Breakdown of the percentage of major alkaloids in the Morning Glory variety ‘Heavenly Blue’:

Alkaloid % of dry seed weight
d-Lysergic acid amide (LSA): 0.035
d-Isolysergic acid amide (Isoergine): 0.005
Ergometrine:* 0.005
Chanoclavine: 0.005
Elymoclavine: 0.005
Total alkaloids (inc. trace alkaloids): 0.06

*Ergometrine has uterus-stimulating properties, and has been demonstrated to have strong negative effects on growing fetuses, causing a multitude of mental and physical developmental complications. It should be avoided by pregnant women.


3. History

Declassified Cover of MKULTRA research documents

Although LSA had been unknowingly used by humans for thousands of years, it was not until very recently that the alkaloid compound itself was formally identified. Albert Hofmann isolated the compound in 1947 through self-trials. Hofmann noted after intramuscular administration of 500 micrograms (pure LSA) that he entered a tired and dreamy state where normal thought patterns where difficult to establish. Almost 10 years later, in 1956, the Central Intelligence Agency began to research the properties of LSA as part of project MKULTRA, a covert operation experimenting in human behavioural engineering.

Hawaiian Baby Woodrose

A perennial climbing vine Argyreia nervosa is originally from the Indian Subcontinent, where it was used in Ayurvedic medicine since ancient times. However the major source of these plants now resides in Hawaii and is subsequently the reason for the plants most popularly used name of Hawaiian Baby Woodrose. The plants introduction to the Pacific Island Region is not entirely unique as the plant has travelled to many areas of the world, most notably Africa and the Caribbean,  and as such has inspired a wide variety of different names including but not limited to; ‘Adhoguda’ (Marathi), ‘Vidhara’ (Sanskrit), ‘Bastantri’ (Sankrit), ‘Samandar-ka-pat’ (Hindi), ‘Candrapada’ (Kannada and Telugu), ‘Marikkunni’ (Malayalam), ‘Samuttirappaccai’ (Tamil), ‘Elephant Creeper’, ‘Silky Elephant Glory’, ‘Woolly Morning Glory’, ‘Mile-a-minute’, ‘Monkey Rose’, ‘Silver Morning Glory’, and ‘Pili-Kai’ (Hawaii). Argyreia nervosa can often be confused with Merremia tuberosa (Hawaiian Woodrose) which grows in similar regions.

Despite all these names, Hawaiian Baby Woodrose remains the one most commonly used – possibly as a result of our increasing awareness of its entheogenic potential. Unlike many plants with psychedelic properties, Hawaiian Baby Woodrose appears to have no traditional use as an entheogen. The discovery of the plant as a psychedelic was the result of phytochemical research. It is speculated that the plant may have been the main, or one of, the ingredients used in the ancient Indo-Iranian ritualistic drink, Soma. Many discussions of this drink report mystical and medicinal properties which accord with Argyreia nervosa’s effects.

In Hawaii the use of the plant by shaman in the Huna religion is not known which keeps in line with the plants absence with in the ethnobotany of the country. However, in the low economic areas the plant is currently used as a cheap substitute for marijuana. The plant continues to be used for its medical purposes in Ayurveda. The root has been used as a supposed treatment for fatigue, headaches, low sex drive, bronchitis, tuberculosis, arthritis, syphilis and diabetes. The validity of such claims has yet to receive further research in clinical trials. In modern culture the plant has also become a legal alternative for experimenting psychonauts due to its LSA content, which provides a similar experience to LSD. In doing this, however, many will experience a number of minor to strong side effects due to the seed’s toxic impurities (more information on which can be found in section 5.1).

Morning Glory

The name ‘Morning Glory’ is used to identify the majority of plants of the Convulucae family, a large family consisting of over a thousand different species. A small percentage of this family possess psychoactive properties. The plants most often used include; Ipomoea violocae, Ipomoea tricolor and Rivea corymbosa / Turbina corymbosa. In Oaxaca, Mexico, the Chontal Indians, Mazatec Indians, Aztecs, and Zapotecs used Morning Glory as part of their shamanistic rituals. The Aztecs called the plant ‘Tilitzin’ and attempted to communicate with the Sun Gods. The Chontal Indians believed the plants contained a strong spiritual energy and that an equally powerful spirit possessed the plant, allowing the user to enter the realm of the spirit gods. These traditions and beliefs would first be observed with the invasion of Spanish forces to the Americas.

Statue of Pedro Ponce de Leon at his tomb, Plasencia

The most famous early report of the use of Morning Glory is that of Spanish Benedictine monk Pedro Ponce de Leon. In observing the shamanistic rituals he noted how the experience was not unlike a divine encounter:

“Some say little black men appear before them and which tell them what they want to know about. Others say that our Lord appears before them, while still others say that it is angels. And when they do this, they enter a room, close themselves in, and have someone watch so that they can hear what they say.”

The use of Tilitzin continues among the natives of the land.

It was not until 1959 that modern science first chemically analysed the plant. Richard Shultes was the first to write a report on the plants used by the Aztecs in 1941. He would later cultivate the plant and send Turbina corymbosa / Rivea corymbosa for further examination by Albert Hofmann. After analysing the seeds, it was found that they contained contained ergot-like alkaloids. This was considered curious, for these had only ever been found in rye fungus such as Claviceps purpurea. The significant alkaloid discovered was LSA. Other than LSA, Hofmann discovered a number of other psychoactive alkaloids, in particular: d-isolysergic acid amide, chanoclavine, elymoclavine, and lysergol. As Hofmann was discovering the chemical makeup of Morning Glory plants in 1960, Don Thomas MacDougall was further investigating the plants use by Zapotecs – who called them ‘badoh negro’. He noted that they would use these as sacraments and would experiment with different combinations of morning glory to achieve varying effects.

Today, Morning Glory plants and seeds can be found all over the world and are sold commercially under a plethora of evocative names: Heavenly Blue, Pearly Gates, Blue Enchantment, Flying Saucers, Blue Star, Summer Skies, and Wedding Bells. As plants, they are often highly regarded for their aesthetic value, but in some countries (e.g., South Africa) are regarded as weeds.


4. Dosage

As always, dosage advice must be taken with caution. Because of the number of variables involved in judging the potency of psychedelic substances (e.g., the purity of the substance, the background brain chemistry of the user, the individual’s level of physical tolerance, etc.), it is not possible to give sound advice that covers all circumstances, and we cannot be held responsible if the information below is incorrect or the cause of harm should anyone decide to reconstruct practices noted here for research purposes – we do not advise or endorse ingestion of LSA.

Strength of psychoactive effects Dosage of pure LSA (mg)
Threshold: 0.2
Moderate: 0.5 – 1.5
Strong: 1.5 – 3.5
Intense: 3.5 – 4.0
Dangerous: 4.0+

Experiences peak at around 2 hours, lasting a total of 8-14 hours, with after-effects/comedown usually lasting up to 24 hours.


Hawaiian Baby Woodrose:

Whether ingesting the seeds raw or extracting the alkaloids, the general guidelines for dosage are as follows:

Strength of psychoactive effects Number of HBW seeds
Threshold: 1-2
Light: 3-5
Moderate: 6-8
Strong: 9-12
Intense: 12-15

The onset of experiences is quick – around 20-60 minutes – peaking at around 2 hours, and lasting a total of 4-8 hours with after-effects usually lasting up to 12 hours.


Morning Glory:

Due to the increased concentration of toxic elements and reduced level of LSA psychonauts must eat considerably more Morning Glory seeds to achieve the equivalent level obtained through other seeds or means. As a result negative side effects associated with these seeds tend to be far more pronounced in relation to the HBW seeds. Greater level of preparation and care should be used when using seeds of the Ipomoea genus variety.

There are a wide variety of Ipomoea seeds that contain some level of psychoactive alkaloids and as such defining the proper dosage is difficult – other factors such as seed quality are also an issue. The following is a rough estimate and may vary:

Ipomoea ('Morning Glory') seeds

Ipomoea (‘Morning Glory’) seeds

Strength of psychoactive effects Number of seeds Amount (g)
Threshold: 10 – 30  0.25 – 1
Light: 50 – 100  1.5 – 3.0
Moderate: 100 – 250  3 – 6
Strong: 250 – 400  6 – 10
Intense: 400+  10

The onset of psychoactive effects is at around 30-120 minutes. Experiences peak at 2-3 hours, lasting a total of 4-10 hours, with after-effects/comedown usually lasting between 6 and 24 hours.

Note: Some individuals report lasting visuals and feeling off-baseline for more than a day after taking above-moderate doses of morning glory seeds.


4.1 Ingestion

The most common way of ingesting LSA-containing seeds is to simply chew them thoroughly and swallow. Note that swallowing the seeds is likely to lead to negative side effects (vomiting, etc.). An alternate method of ingestion is as follows:

LSA is soluble in water. Many people choose to absorb it sublingually (beneath the tongue). There is some evidence to suggest that this is a way of diminishing the negative physiological side effects associate with eating the seeds whole. The downside to this method is that users will need to increase the seed dosage to get the same level of effects. The increase is normally around 50 – 75% more seeds – e.g., 5 seeds chewed and swallowed would be roughly equivalent to 7-8 seeds absorbed sublingually.

To ingest the LSA of the seeds sublingually, users will have to ground up their seeds thoroughly into a small container, before adding a small amount of water, just enough to cover the seeds. If the user wishes, they can also add a small amount of juice (e.g., lemon juice) or sugar to improve the flavour. (Perhaps try adding lemon essential oil or some form of peppermint/nettle/ginkgo to the water in order to aid digestion, further inhibiting the chance of vomiting.) Leave the mixture to rest for approximately 5 minutes, after which one can proceed to pour the mixture into one’s mouth. Do not swallow. The user will let the mixture remain in their mouth, preferably beneath your tongue, for approximately 20-30 minutes or longer depending on how strong they want their trip to be. Once the time is up the mixture can be spit out. Effects should begin to be felt within one hour, but may be slow to escalate.


5. Effects

Argyreia nervosa ('Hawaiian Baby Woodrose') seeds

Argyreia nervosa (‘Hawaiian Baby Woodrose’) seeds

LSA produces effects not unlike those experienced by those who have taken LSD. However, since LSA is less potent than LSD, the effects are not as profoundly intense. Effects experienced include: visual distortions, increased brightness and vividness of colours, tracers,after-images. At very high doses some even report seeing open eye visuals. Beyond the visual aspects of LSA it can also effect a users emotional state and clarity of thought. Many users experience an unusual interest in topics they may not normally think about as well as repetition of thought characterised as ‘looping’ – these effects last for many hours and begin to taper off gradually.

“The slight difference in chemical structure between the ololiuqui [Morning Glory] constituents and LSD is very significant with regard to hallucinogenic acitivity. The effective oral dose in man of LSD is 0.05 mg [which] is thus about 50 to 100 times more active than lysergic acid amide, which is active in doses of 2 to 5 mg. Furthermore there is not only a quantitative difference between the principles of Ipomoea violacea and Turbina corymbosa and LSD; there is likewise a qualitative one, LSD being a very specific hallucinogen, whereas the psychic effects of lysergic acid amide and the total alkaloids of these two plants are characterized by a pronounced narcotic component” (Hofmann, 1968).

After the primary effects have subsided users can continue to experience a number of lesser effects for approximately 3 hours. Such diminished effects include; minor visual alterations in colors and brightness, a disparate feeling of reality noted by the different thought patterns one experiences as a result of the substance. On the ‘Shulgin Rating Scale’ some users report a + or 1+ . The  variance of effects is unusually high with LSA and LSA containing plants, much higher than any other form of psychedelic. Some suggest that this may be a result of the independent life experiences that inform the direction of an LSA experience. However a more sound reason is most likely the variability of potency within the extensive list of LSA containing plants. As well as the oft used crude methods of extraction. Research into the concetration of alkaloids in plants at Harvard University revealed that ‘analysis of the seeds revealed that there was an over ten-fold variation in alkaloid content from batch to batch—some seeds being complete duds, containing no LSA whatsoever’. The presence of other ergoline alkaloids such as ergonovine (found to be psychoactive at doses from 2 to 10 mg), elymoclavine and lysergol.


5.1. Physiological

Beyond the psychedelic effects noted above the seeds of LSA containing plants carry with them a number of unpleasant physical side effects. These effects can vary depending on dosage and an individuals own constitution and thus can be non-existent in rare cases to mild in many cases and quite strong in some cases – the quality of the seeds themselves is also a significant factor to account for. The effects are: nausea, exhaustion, gas, cramps, elevated heart rate, gastric discomfort characterised most commonly as constipation or cramps. None, some, or all of these effects may occur in any given case. When taken in high dosages nausea is predominantly experienced and will often lead to vomiting. The presence of these symptoms might be due to a variety of variables, such as the commercial preparation of the seeds with pesticides/fungicides. Also, if the seeds are not properly washed or ground up, the high cellulose content of the seed husks might be responsible for the discomfort.

The primary method of ingestion is orally. One may simply chew and eat the seeds raw and untreated but many psychonauts choose to treat the seeds in some way to diminish or remove the cyanogen glycosides reported to be within them– users report this as the primary suspect for negative effects. The cyanogenic glucosides oxidise into cyanide compounds when exposed to air. At low levels the body can deal with these toxins and remove them over the course of a few hours.  At higher levels the cyanogen glucosides can be very dangerous. The toxins acts as a vasoconstrictor, meaning they shrink the blood vessels in the body and subsequently decrease blood flow to the extremities, resulting in a tingling sensation predominantly in the fingers and toes but can be felt elsewhere. The feeling normally dissipates prior to the peak of the trip and isn’t of much concern unless extreme doses have been taken – highly unadvised.  If repeated high doses are taken on a regular basis it can lead to long term cumulative negative effect on one’s physical health as a result of blood vessel damage which can lead to a number of health complications. Users also report that the presence of the seeds negative side effects may be a result of the high cellulose content of the plants or pesticides used on the plants themselves – proper washing and grounding is advised in a an attempt to reduce the effect of these factors.

Many suggest that scratching off the outer fuzz on the seeds will reduce the amount of nausea experienced; however this is purely anecdotal and widely disputed. A more reliable method, but less often used, is to perform an extraction on the seeds to remove the toxic glycosides. The most popular method is a simple cool water extraction as this is the quickest and simplest but others are used such as ethanol extraction which takes much longer – 24hours – but has a far greater success rate in reducing the nausea inducing toxic elements found in the seeds. Other  methods include polar/non-polar and acid base. Besides extraction, users should also consider the quality of the seeds they are acquiring when taking into account both their psychedelic potency and toxicity. A simple guide is to avoid seeds that are old and dried out, such seeds predominantly come from the Indian subcontinent; these seeds will have little psychoactive value but retain their toxicity. High quality seeds tend to come from tropical regions that have the right climates. Many seeds are treated with fungicides which are toxic when consumed, therefore when acquiring seeds one should make sure they are labelled as untreated.


6. Botany

Hawaiian Baby Woodrose

Argyreia nervosa is a perennial climbing vine of the liana variety and is part of the Convolvulaceae family. Originally a native to the Indian sub-continent, the plant has subsequently been introduced worldwide. The vine has two botanical varieties. The first is described in the body of this article Argyreia nervosa (var. nervosa) which contains psychoactive compounds. The second is Argyreia nervosa (var. speciosa), which has no psychoactive chemical compounds and is solely used in ayurvedic medicine.

Argyreia nervosa has large, leathery, heart-shaped leaves and white or pink trumpet-shaped flowers that are born in cymes, on long white-velvety stalks. It produces large, furry seeds that grow in seedpods. The vine can grow up to 10m in length in the right conditions. The petals are about 6cm long, with shallowly lobes and a pinkish-purple colour. The plant’s fruit is spherical and yellowish-brown with a diameter of 20mm.  Leaf blades are 15-25 cm long, and 13-20 cm wide, heart-shaped. Sepals are 1.3-1.5cm long, and velvety, like the leaves. Flower-stalks are up to 15 cm long, with flowers of around 5-7.5 cm long with a short tube and bell-shaped limb, coloured lavender-pink. The flowers are followed by hard, woody capsules, which when ripened break open to resemble miniature roses. Natural flowering occurs July-December, March-April.

Morning Glory

Flowers of Ipomoea tricolor (‘Morning Glory’)

Ipomoea violocea and Ipomoea tricolor are often confused with one another. This is most likely the result of Albert Hofmann’s error in  Plants of the Gods: Their Sacred, Healing, and Hallucinogenic Powers. There, Hofmann describes tricolor as violocae. To avoid mistaking the two one should note that the Ipomoea violacea‘s corolla is only white, whereas tricolor’s mainly consists of blue, white, and a yellow centre (growers have bred Tricolor to flower with different colours in recent years).  Beyond this confusion both plants are perennial twining vine, growing from ten to fifteen-feet tall, with heart-shaped leaves known to grow up to five-inches long.

Heavenly Blue (tricolor) is the most sought-after of the Ipomoea family, partly for its bright colours and partly for its particularly high alkaloid content among the LSA-containing morning glory varieties. Heavenly Blue will produce on average 850 seeds per ounce, which are normally cultivated annually. Varieties of morning glory can be found all around the world, though Heavenly Blue is most concentrated in the New World tropics (Central America). Prior to the plant’s discovery as a psychedelic, it was used in North America to brighten up the exterior of buildings.


6.1 Grow Guide

Hawaiian Baby Woodrose

If one does not live in a tropical climate, growing Argyreia nervosa can be tricky but by no means impossible. Argryreia nervosa seeds are exceedingly tough so require nicking to aid in the germination process. This can be achieved simply by snipping or filing away at the seeds germ eye, this incision should be shallow. After this you should plant the seeds in free draining soil as the seeds are known to be susceptible to rotting. After planting, germination should occur within the next week.

Argyreia nervosa

Argyreia nervosa is considered a low-light plant in its early growth period however they should be exposed to direct sunlight daily until signs of wilting show, at which point remove them from the light. The plant can adapt to higher levels of light if exposed to it daily and will subsequently grow at an accelerated rate but be mindful of wilting as too much exposure can be harmful. Seedlings are vulnerable to rot and as such should be watered sparingly. Keep the soil moist but not wet. Vigilance is required at this early stage as too much sun can be confused for too little water. The impressive 10m height of Argyreia nervosa takes many years to reach and many growers of the plant will find that it takes two years to reach a foot in height. To ensure that the plant can reach its potential proper fertilisation should be maintained, any number of commercial fertilisers should suffice as well more traditional sources.When it comes to flowering and attaining seeds from your plant it is highly recommend you ensure your plant has enough room to grow its roots. This plant places the majority of its energy in creating a large and deep root system, if this system is insufficient in size the plant will not flower or produce seeds when the time comes. Argyreia nervosa is known to get pot bound when in even large pots (20 gallons) and so its recommend that come flowering season you move the plant outside to ensure it has enough space to grow.

Morning Glory

The seeds of Morning Glory are hard coated and thus nicking the seed is advised but not entirely necessary; one can also place the seeds in warm water over night to soften them. Once your seeds are prepared you should plant them to roughly a depth of half an inch, if planting multiple seeds then separate them by roughly 6 – 8 inches. Cover the seeds with soil and then firm it down to ensure the seeds are secure. The soil used should be of poor quality, as nutrient rich soil will produce lush foliage but few blossoms and seeds.In regards to watering one should aim to keep the soil moist but not wet. In the early life cycle prior to the seedlings emerging (first 7 – 21 days) the soil should be maintained at a fairly moist level but after this period watering can take place less often – 1-2 weeks is advised.

Morning Glories prefer a lot of direct sunlight and will optimally be exposed to it for  6-8 hours a day, though they can also manage lightly shaded areas. Once the plant begins to grow in height you should ensure that both it’s root system and vine have sufficient space to grow. In soil the plant should have a space of approximately 8-10 inches in circumference. As the plant matures and enters its blooming period you can begin to deadhead the shriveled flowers of the vine by simply removing them, this will prolong the blooming period of the plant and aesthetically is much tidier and pleasant to view. The plant should begin to flower 6 weeks after sowing.


7. Legality

LSA is listed as a schedule III drug in the United States. Similar restrictions and laws are in place in most countries. This is undoubtedly due to the fact that LSA can be used as a precursor to produce the far more potent LSD. However because LSA occurs naturally in many plants the complete prohibition of this substance is unfeasible. As a result trading, distributing and cultivating plants and fungi that contain the alkaloid is legal or unscheduled in the majority of countries. See more below.


Argyreia nervosa and Morning Glory seeds are in the majority of countries legal to purchase, sell and germinate but are generally unapproved for human consumption.  However a number of countries classify the seeds as illegal to consume and others have outlawed ergine-containing seeds completely. Many countries allow the sale of LSA containing seeds so long as they are labelled as unfit for consumption, this is partly because of the LSA and partly because of the toxic pesticides used on many commercial seeds sold.

A current list of countries and the legal status of LSA-containing plants:

  • Africa and South Africa – Presumed uncontrolled.  South Africa regards Morning Glory as an invasive weed
  • Brazil – uncontrolled
  • Belgium  – sold as unfit for unfit for consumption
  • Denmark – legal to trade, distribute and cultivate
  • Finland –legal to trade, distribute and cultivate
  • Germany – uncontrolled
  • Hungary – legal to trade, distribute and cultivate
  • Italy – listed as controlled narcotic drugs
  • Ireland – legal to trade, distribute and cultivate
  • Mexico  – legal to trade, distribute and cultivate
  • New Zealand – legal to trade, distribute and cultivate
  • Poland  – controlled
  • Russia – banned
  • Singapore – untreated seeds legal to trade
  • Sweden – uncontrolled
  • Slovakia – legal to trade, distribute and cultivate
  • Romania – legal to trade, distribute and cultivate
  • United Kingdom – uncontrolled
  • United States – legal to trade, distribute and cultivate ; Arizona lists all Ipomea species as illegal to cultivate, Louisiana lists the plant as illegal to cultivate specifically for human consumption


For further information on LSA and other entheogens try our literature page.


Works Cited:

Bojer. Jew-Ming Chao; Marderosian, Ara H. Der. (1973). ‘Ergoline Alkaloidal Constituents of Hawaiian Baby Wood Rose’,  Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vol. 62, No. 4, pp. 588-91.

Erowid Vault. LSA. Effects.

Halpern, J. (2004). ‘Hallucinogens and Dissociative Agents Naturally Growing in the United States’, Pharmacology & Therapeutics, Vol. 102, No. 2, pp. 131-138.

Hofmann, A.; Shultes, R. (1973). Botany & Chemistry of Hallucinogens, (Charles C. Thomas).

Miller, M.D. (1970). ‘Isolation and Identification of Lysergic Acid Amide and Isolysergic Acid Amide as the Principal Ergoline Alkaloids in Argyreia nervosa‘, Bureau of Narcotics and Dangerous Drugs, Journal of the AOAC, Vol.  53, No. 1, pp. 123-7.

Ott, Jonathan. (1996) Pharmacotheon: Entheogenic Drugs, their Plant Sources and History, (The Natural Products Co. Second Edition)

Sewell, R. (2008) ‘Unauthorized Research on Cluster Headache’, The Entheogen Review, Vol. 16, No. 4, pp. 117-125.

Shulgin, A.; Shulgin, A. (1997). TIHKAL(Berkeley, CA: Transform Press).

Shultes, R. (1995). Enthnobotany: Evolution of Discipline, (Timber Press).